Indonesian Tourism: World Heritage Status

World Heritage of Nature

Indonesia has 4 objects with a status of "World Heritage of Nature". These objects are:

1. Ujung Kulon National Park

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The Park is the first national park which was inaugurated in Indonesia; the park is getting recognition from UNESCO in 1991. The national park is located in the westernmost part of Java Island. The park is also covering an area of Krakatoa and several small islands surrounding such as Handeuleum Island and Peucang Island, these island has an area of about 1206 km2, in which 443 km2 is the sea. Actually, at first, this park is an agricultural area until eventually be destroyed and exhausted population caused by the eruption of Krakatoa on August 27, 1883. These events led to this area back to forest.

Currently, the area used as a protection area for endangered Javanese rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) and other rare animals. Other rare animals are protected in addition to Java rhinoceros is the bull (Bos javanicus javanicus), ajag (Cuon alpinus javanicus), surili (Presbytis Comata Comata), langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus), deer (Cervus timorensis Russa), leopard (Panthera pardus) , cat stone (Prionailurus bengalensis javanensis), gibbons (Hylobates moloch), and giant clams (Tridacna gigas).

2. Komodo National Park

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Komodo National Park received recognition from UNESCO in 1991. The park is located between Sumbawa and Flores Island that consists of three major islands, namely Komodo Island, Rinca, and Padar, and several other small islands. The park was established in 1980 to protect the dragons and their habitat. Besides dragons, in this national park there are also approximately 277 other animal species which is a mix of animals coming from Asia and Australia. In addition, there are approximately 253 species of coral reefs in the famous waters as well as one of the best point in the world for diving. Today, this national park is also entered into one of the 7 wonders of the world's nomination.

3. Lorentz National Park

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Lorentz National Park, West Papua was recognized by UNESCO in 1999. With an area of 25,000 km2, the park is the largest in Southeast Asia. The area is also one of the three regions in the world with glaciers in the tropics. The park has an amazing biodiversity. The types of animals that have been identified in the park were approximately 630 species of birds and 123 species of mammals. Bird species characteristic of this national park are, two types of cassowary, four megapoda, 31 types of pigeon / doves, 30 species of parrots, 13 species of birds of shrimp, 29 species of birds honey, and 20 species endemic among long-tailed bird of paradise (Paradigalla caruneulata) and quail snow (Anurophasis monorthonyx). Mammals animal recorded include a long snout pig spines (Zaglossus bruijnii), pig snout short spines (Tachyglossus aculeatus), 4 types of possum, wallaby, wild cats, and tree kangaroos.

4. Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Leuser Mountain National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park, South Bukit Barisan National Park)

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Tropical heritage rainforests of Sumatra that includes three national parks are getting recognition from UNESCO in 2004.

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Leuser Mountain National Park (TNGL) itself is one of nature conservation area in the administration of government lies in two provinces, namely Aceh and North Sumatra. TNGL includes native ecosystems from coast to high mountains covered by dense forest typical of tropical rain. In this TNGL region, there are rare plants and typical of a giant umbrella leaf (Johannesteijsmannia altifrons), Raflesia flower (Rafflesia atjehensis and R. micropylora) and Rhizanthes zippelnii which is the largest flower with a diameter of 1.5 meters. In addition, there is a unique plant or strangler fig plant.

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Meanwhile, Kerinci Seblat national park is the largest national park in Sumatra. The park extends into four provinces, namely West Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu and South Sumatra. The park consists of the Bukit Barisan Mountains, which is the highest plateau in the Sumatra region, springs, hot springs, wing swift rivers, caves, waterfalls and the highest caldera lake in Southeast Asia, Mount Seven. The national park also has a diverse flora and fauna. About 4,000 species of plants grow in areas of national parks including the world's largest flower Rafflesia arnoldi, and the highest rates in the world, the Titan Arum. Fauna in the national park area comprising among others the Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Sumatran Elephant, Clouded Tiger, Malay Tapir, Sun Bear and about 370 species of birds.

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South Bukit Barisan National Park is included in the area of administration of West Lampung and Tanggamus region, where both are part of Lampung Province. This park is very rich in biodiversity and is home to three species of the most endangered large mammal in the world: the Sumatran elephant (less than 2000 fish that survive today), Sumatran rhinoceros (total global population: 300 individuals and the less drastic amounts) and the Sumatran tiger (total global population of about 400 individuals). The park entrance is also in the Global 200 Ecoregions, the rank of habitat land, freshwater and sea on earth is the most conspicuous of the biological standpoint made by WWF. The park is highlighted as a priority area for Sumatran rhino conservation through the Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy (Areas) from the WWF. In addition, IUCN, WCS and WWF have identified the South Bukit Barisan National Park as a Tiger Conservation Unit (Wikramanayake et al., 1997), the most important forest areas for conservation of tigers in the world. Finally, in 2002, UNESCO has chosen this area to be proposed as World Heritage Cluster Mountainous Areas and National Park Gunung Leuser and Kerinci Seblat.

World Heritage of Culture

Indonesia has 3 objects with the status of "World Heritage of Culture". These objects are:

1. Borobudur Temple
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Borobudur Temple received recognition from UNESCO in 1991. It is a Buddhist temple located in Magelang, Central Java. The temple was founded by followers of Mahayana Buddhism around the year 800 AD during the reign of the dynasty. The temple that when viewed from above form a Mandala structure (symbol of the universe in Buddhist cosmology). The temple does not use cement at all in construction, but with the interlock system (like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue).

2. Prambanan Temple
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Prambanan Temple received recognition from UNESCO in 1991. It is the largest Hindu temple complex in Indonesia. The temple is located 17 km from the city center that was built in the 10th century during the reign of two kings, namely Rakai Pikatan and Balitung. The temple has three main temples in the primary yard, namely Vishnu Temple, Brahma, and Shiva. The three temples are a symbol of Trimurti in Hindu belief.

3. Sangiran Site

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Sangiran site recognized by UNESCO in 1996. It is an archaeological site located in Central Java. Administratively located in Sragen regency and Karanganyar. Initially the research of Sangiran is a dome called Sangiran Dome. Top of the dome is then opened through a process of erosion to form a depression. In the depression that can be found in soil layers that contain information about life in the past. On this site, we can find lots of information about the remains of past life. In addition, there is complete information about the history of early human life with all things around them. From about the place of living, life pattern, animals that live with them until the occurrence of the landscape within a period of not less than 2 million years ago.

World Heritage of Intangible Culture

In this category, Indonesia has 4 objects, namely:

1. Wayang (Shadow Puppet)
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Wayang is Indonesia traditional art which is mainly developed in Java and Bali. Sunan Kali Jaga and Raden Patah were instrumental used in developing the Puppet. The Guardian in Java has been set up in such a way into three parts. First Wayang Kulit in East Java, Wayang Wong in Central Java, and the third Marionette Puppet in West Java. Each very related to one another. Namely "Where the contents (Wayang Wong) and Where the Skin (Wayang Kulit) should be sought (Marionette puppet)". Puppet show has been recognized by UNESCO on November 7, 2003, as an amazing work culture in the field of narrative story and legacy of the beautiful and very valuable (Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity).
Today, not only to the extent of shadow Wayang puppet and the puppet people, there are also e-puppet that overall manufacturing process uses digital facilities. E-puppet can be viewed via the website.

2. Keris (Kris)
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Keris get UNESCO recognition in 2005. Keris which we now know is the result of a long evolutionary process. Modern keris known today is a unique dagger awl with a variety of forms. Besides being used as a weapon, a dagger is also often considered to have supernatural powers. These weapons are often mentioned in many traditional legends, such as MPU Gandring in legend of Ken Arok and Ken Dedes.

3. Batik
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Batik is recognized as World Heritage by UNESCO in 2009. To celebrate, Indonesia has made 2 October as a Batik national day. Indonesian batik motives vary depending on region.

4. Angklung
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Angklung is planned to gain recognition from UNESCO on November 18th to come. Bamboo musical instrument which can produce very beautiful voice echoes are well known to the world.

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